The Lake Cowichan First Nation is the smallest group, in terms of population. As the name implies, members of this group are connected to lands and settlements in the Lake Cowichan area.
The Lake Cowichan First Nation, while a distinct group, is closely linked to the Cowichan and is part of the Hul'qumi'num linguistic group. Early white visitors to the Lake Cowichan area described "a small tribe of Indians" living in "houses constructed of bark." (Quotes from articles published in the Victoria Gazette (May 30, 1860) and the Daily Chronicle (June 16, 1864), cited by Isaac 1997, 7-8) According to a variety of sources, during the 19th Century the Lake Cowichan First Nation was decimated by disease and conflict with neighbouring groups. In 1887 the surveyor Ashdown Green reported that the Lake Cowichan people had once been numerous but had been nearly wiped out by war with the Cowichan and Ditidahts (cited in Isaac 1997, 7). In 1860, a white man named Samuel Harris travelled to the area seeking minerals and reported that many of the Indians were dead and dying from smallpox. Archaeological investigations have revealed the historic presence of a village on the north east side of the lake, within the boundaries of the present day Cowichan Lake Indian Reserve.